Monday, May 30, 2011

Roman Sandals: Military footwear

Footwear played a major role in the development of the Roman Civilization. Better shod armies travelled further across rougher terrain. As the empire expanded however supplies to the outposts from Rome became impractical. Roman sandal and shoe making and vegetable tanning (van Driel-Murray,2007) were therefore introduced to the conquered. The Roman Empire stretched far beyond Greek boundaries and the terrain and weather conditions necessitated more sturdy footwear (van Driel-Murray,2007). The Greeks were preoccupied with elegance and grace whereas during the Republic (circa 509 BCE – 43AD), the Romans were more pragmatic and devised thongs suitable for military activities. The Etruscans had developed brass tacks and the Romans adapted these to hobnailed footwear suitable for foot soldiers required to march on hard and rough terrain. The shoe tack turned the humble sandal into militarized hob nailed sandals ideal for protection and traction to optimized grip for the marching soldier and combatant. Gradually local shoe making crafts were incorporated and jubilant soldiers returned to Rome proudly sporting their ethnic shoes as souvenirs from successful campaigns. During Imperial Rome (27 BCE–AD 47/1461) shoes were supplied to soldiers and because most of the sandals were mass produced this created a massive industry. According to Sparkes Hall, soldiers often had to pay for their own hobnails although at times some Emperors did have them issued free. According to van Driel- Murray (2007) soldiers could expect three pairs per year.

Often soldiers celebrated their return to Rome by substituting the bronze nails with gold and silver tacks. Foot gear changed little during the Imperial era of Roman history.

The design of footwear designated rank and the campagus was a boot worn by officers. These were heavily tooled and guilded according to rank with ornamental insignia, such as a real or ivory head and paws of a small animal i.e. a fox, over the instep. The boots laced up the front with a leather tongue to protect the dorsum of the foot and anterior shin. The higher the boot was worn on the leg the more superior the rank of the officer.

Soldiers up to the rank of centurion wore caligae or military sandal. These came in several types i.e. scouts wore speculator; horsemen were shod with equestris; and fighting men wore clavata with iron nails protruding underneath for greater traction on rugged ground. Caligae were sturdy, thick-soled sandals with an upper that reached the instep. A lattice of soft, leather strips was tied around the shins or the bridge of the foot by a tongue. The toes were left bare.


When Caius Caesar Germanicus (AD 12-41) was a boy he lived with his father in a fortified garrison and became popular with his father's soldiers. They nicknamed him Caligula because he wore children sized caligae. When Caligula (Claudius I 10 BC- AD 54) was murdered in AD 41, Claudius was proclaimed emperor by the Praetorians. During his reign some marines from Ostia demanded compensation for the marching shoes they wore out. Claudius ordered them to go barefoot and the entire fleet was forbidden from wearing shoes.

Mounting concerns arose with the fashion to accessorize soldier’s footwear and Emporer Lucius Domitius Aurelianus (AD 270 - 275) tried to limit excesses of fashion by forbidding men from wearing coloured (red, yellow and green) shoes and allowing only women to choose materials and colours freely. Emperor Diocletian (284-305) reformed sumptuary law governing clothing and costume laws worn by soldiers and non-military government bureaucrats. Clothing including footwear became more decorative.

By the 4th century AD, galoshes were fashioned in cowhide with heavy leather soles. The gallicae was originally from Gaul and appeared in Rome in the last century of the Republic. This was an entirely closed boot somewhere between the sandal and the shoe. The Romans adapted their boots from the Gauls and only wore them in bad weather. Gaulish boots became known as galoshes (Sunshine & Tiegreen, 1995). Gallienus launched the campagus and the zancha, the latter being a high leather boot fitting closely to the leg; it was supposed to have originated in Armenia or the Crimea, and thought to have been a style disseminated by the Scythians. Another shoe worn by the military was the cnemis. This was a simple sandal combined with leggings. Frequently the greaves were made of brass and bronze and lined with leather.

Soldiers wore socks when in colder climes but also disrobed before entering Rome. For a time socks and short breeches were banned as leg covers but in time underwear became part of normal military costume.

References
Sparkes Hall J The book of feet: A history of boots and shoes
van Driel-Mauuar C Footwear in the north-western prvinces of the Roman Empire In Goubitz O., van Driel-Murray C., and Groenman-van Waateringe W 2007 Stepping through time:Archaeological footwear from prehistoric times until 1800 Stichting Promotie Archeologie: Zwolle.

Sunday, May 15, 2011

The Roman Civilisation: A brief history

Although the Romans conquered Greece in 146 BCE, Greco fashion remained until the end of antiquity. Rome was founded around 753 BCE by an agrarian Italic (Pre Roman) peoples living south of the Tiber river. It started as a small village and grew into a city. As it did the government and Roman culture developed. They were a tribal people and organized themselves along tribal lines but adopted the workings of neighboring civilizations, i.e. the Etruscans. At first, Rome had a monarchical government which oversaw the city and its territories. No written records survived, and the histories were recorded retrospectively during the Republic and Empire. Conventional opinion supports this history was largely based on legend.

During the Roman Kingdom (circa 753-509 BCE) monarchy had absolute power (or imperium) and ruled alongside a Senate and an Assembly. The Senate was a council of elders (all male) composed of the heads of various clan groups. No individual could ascend the throne without the approval of the clan leaders and the Senate had the power to approve or veto the appointment of the king. Citizenship was granted only to individuals who could demonstrate both their parents were native Romans. As Rome grew and wealth accumulated this fell into the hands of a few people. Society was divided into two groups: the patricians and the plebeians. Patricians held the wealth and controlled most of the trade, power, and the military. Only patricians could serve as clan leaders and were allowed to sit on the Senate or hold any appointed or elected offices. The plebeians were mainly small farmers, hard laborers, and craftspeople and made up the majority of the population. Most plebeians worked for patricians but some small farmers worked their own lands. Plebeians had a small voice in government via the assembly which governed their interests. Gradually the Etruscans took over the government of Rome as it expanded into surrounding territories. There was a revolt in 510 BCE and the Etruscan monarchs were expelled, thereafter the Republic of Roma was established.

The Roman Republic (circa 509 BCE – 43AD) saw the greatest expansion of Roman power and was ruled under a republican government. Emphasis was placed on the simple and practical. Many ordinary people went barefoot but gradually between 300-27 BCE Romans wore a variety of footwear. These included ankle boots of rawhide or leather which laced completely up the front. Towards the end of the Republic, ladies of quality wore sandals with very thick soles to make them look taller. White was popular but later more exotic colours were preferred. Pearls and other gems decorate the footwear of the rich. The Ladies of Rome wore purple or green sandals whilst the women of Pompeii (6th BCE – 79AD) preferred white, red or gilded leather shoes. The transition from Republic to Empire was marked by the appointment of Julius Caesar's as perpetual dictator (44 BC).

The Roman Empire (27 BCE–AD 47/1461) consisted of an autocracy with large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean. The first emperor was Augustus/ Octavianus (27BCE-14AD). The empire reached its greatest extent under Caesar Divi Nervae Filius Nerva Traianus Optimus Augustus, (also called Caesar Nerva Traianus Germanicus), and he was the first Emporer to be born outside Italy. He controlled approximately 6.5 million km of land surface. The institutions and culture of Rome had a profound and lasting influence on the development of language, religion, architecture, philosophy, law, and forms of government in the territories it governed. The Western Roman Empire collapsed in 476 as Romulus Augustus (circa 461 - 476) was forced to abdicate by Odoacer. The Empire became gradually less Romanized and increasingly more Germanic in nature.

The Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire ended in 1453 with the death of Constantine XI and the capture of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks led by Mehmed II.

Friday, February 11, 2011

Tutankhamun’s Footwear Studies of Ancient Egyptian Footwear

Among the objects found in Tutankhamun’s tomb was a large collection of shoes and sandals. These are now housed in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo and the Luxor Museum. In a new book by André J.Veldmeijer et al., entitled Tutankhamun’s Footwear Studies of Ancient Egyptian Footwear the 3,300-year-old footwear footwear is analyzed in detail. Several specialists contributed to the volume discussing the different materials (gold, vegetable fibre, birch bark, glass and faience, leather, gemstones) that were used in the footwear. The footwear from the tomb of Yuya and Tjuiu, Tutankhamun’s great-grandparents, is also analysed for comparison.It appears King Tutankhamun had a <a href="http://news.discovery.com/archaeology/king-tut-dna-lineage.html%22%3EKohler disease II </a>. It also appears he had club foot (<a href="http://www.wheelessonline.com/ortho/talipes_equinovarus_clubfoot%22%3Etalipes equino varus</a>) on his left foot. On the second toe of the right foot he had no middle bone, making the toe shorter. The combination of the deformities necessitated he wore modified shoes. Over 80 pieces of footwear of different sizes were buried with the boy king. Some had deteriorated, with only fragments or isolated straps remaining but others survived in decent condition. 81 specimens were studied in detail. Many sandals demonstrate the print of King Tut's foot on the sole. Two pairs of open shoes had the middle part of the sole stuffed for extra comfort. Three pairs had horizontal straps just below the toes; one pair also had semi-circular panels at the shoe's sides. These features are not known in any other footwear, sandal or shoe and the authors believe these additions may have been used to compensate for the foot deformities.

Reference
André J.Veldmeijer ,Alan J. Clapham, Erno Endenburg, Aude Gräzer, Fredrik Hagen, James A. Harrell, Mikko H. Kriek, Paul T. Nicholson, Jack M. Ogden, Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood 2011 Tutankhamun’s Footwear Studies of Ancient Egyptian Footwear Heritage Key.